How to read PID Diagrams (Understanding the symbols)
This is the part 1 of the tutorial on How to read PID diagrams. In order to understand a diagram one should know what every symbols signifies so that it can be understood and used properly lets start with all the symbols in part 1.
Line symbols are used to describe connectivity between different units in a controlled system. Below is the list of most commonly used lines in a PID Diagram.
Each and every line has a different meaning kindly observe the differences keenly.
the "main process" refers to a pipe carrying a chemical. "Insulated" is straightforward, showing that the pipe has insulation. "Trace heated" shows that the pipe has wiring wrapped around it to keep the contents heated. "Lagged" indicates on a P&ID that the pipe is wrapped in a cloth or fiberglass wrap as an alternative to painting to improve the appearance of the pipe see here for more information. The last column in Table 1 shows pipes that are controlled by a controller. "Electrical impulse" shows that the manner in which information is sent from the controller to the the pipe is by an electrical signal, whereas "pneumatic impulse" indicates information sent by a gas.In addition to line symbols, there are also line labels that are short codes that convey further properties of that line. These short codes consist of: diameter of pipe, service, material, and insulation. The diameter of the pipe is presented in inches. The service is what is being carried in the pipe, and is usually the major component in the stream. The material tells you what the that section of pipe is made out of. Examples are CS for carbon steel or SS for stainless steel. Finally a 'Y' designates a line with insulation and an 'N' designates one without it. Examples of line short codes on a P&ID are found below in Figure A.
Figure A: Line Labels
This is useful for providing you more practical information on a given pipe segment.
For example in stream 39 in Figure A, the pipe has a 4" diameter, services/carries the chemical denoted 'N', is made of carbon steel, and has no insulation.
Identification LettersThe following letters are used to describe the control devices involved in a process. Each device is labeled with two letters. The first letter describes the parameter the device is intended to control. The second letter describes the type of control device.
|Table 2: First Identification Letter
||Table 3: Second Identification Letter
For example, the symbol “PI,” is a “pressure indicator.”
Valve SymbolsThe following symbols are used to represent valves and valve actuators in a chemical engineering process. Actuators are the mechanisms that activate process control equipment.
Table 4: Valve Symbols
Table 5: Valve Actuator Symbols
The following page offers an overview of different industrial valve types.
General Instrument or Function SymbolsInstruments can have various locations, accessibilities, and functionalities in the field for certain processes. It is important to describe this clearly in a P&ID. Below is a table of these symbols commonly used in P&IDs.
For example, a discrete instrument for a certain process measures the flow through a pipe. The discrete instrument, a flow transmitter, transmits the flow to a shared display shared control instrument that indicates the flow to the operator. A computer function instrument would tell the valve to close or open depending on the flow. An instrument under the "Programmable logic control" category would control the valve in the field if it was pneumatically controlled, for instance. The instrument would gather information from discrete instruments measuring the position of the actuator on the valve, and would then adjust the valve accordingly.
In the chart above, it is necessary to know where the instrument is located and its function in order to draw it correctly on a P&ID. A primary instrument is an instrument that functions by itself and doesn't depend on another instrument. A field mounted instrument is an instrument that is physically in the field, or the plant. Field mounted instruments are not accessible to an operator in a control room. An auxiliary instrument is an instrument that aids another primary or auxiliary instrument. Primary and auxiliary instruments are accessible to operators in a control room.
Transmitter SymbolsTransmitters play an important role in P&IDs by allowing the control objectives to be accomplished in a process. The following are commonly used symbols to represent transmitters.
Below are three examples of flow transmitters. The first is using an orifice meter, the second is using a turbine meter, and the third is using an undefined type of meter.
Table 6: Transmitter Symbols
The location of the transmitter depends on the application. The level transmitter in a storage tank is a good example. For instance, if a company is interested in when a tank is full, it would be important for the level transmitter to be placed at the top of the tank rather than the middle. If the transmitter was misplaced in the middle because a P&ID was misinterpreted then the tank would not be properly filled. If it is necessary for the transmitter to be in a specific location, then it will be clearly labeled.