PID diagrams for Dummies with Examples

Hi all,

Before you read this post it is advised that you go through the post where we have discussed about various symbols that are used to make P&ID diagrams.
Now we have understood the symbols let us know see how P&ID diagrams are created and how processes are implemented using P&ID diagrams. This convention simplifies the many control devices that need to be used. For the sake of brevity, sensors, transmitters, indicators, and controllers will all be labeled on a P&ID as a controller. The type of controller specified (i.e. temperature or level) will depend on the variable one wished to control and not on the action needed to control it.

For instance, consider if one must control the temperature of fluid leaving a heat exchanger by changing the flow rate of cooling water. The actual variable to be controlled in this case is temperature, and the action taken to control this variable is changing a flow rate. In this case, a temperature controller will be represented schematically on the P&ID, not a flow controller. Adding this temperature controller to the P&ID also assumes that there is a temperature sensor, transmitter, and indicator also included in the process.
PID - control designation.png
As you can see on the P&ID above, these controllers are represented as circles. Furthermore, each controller is defined by what it controls, which is listed within arrow boxes next to each controller. This simplifies the P&ID by allowing everyone the ability to interpret what each controller affects. Such P&IDs can be constructed in Microsoft Office Visio.

Sample Diagram

Below is a sample P&ID Diagram that is actually used in an industrial application. It is clearly more complicated than what has been detailed above, however, the symbols used throughout remain the same.
SampleP&ID.JPGTable 10: Sample P&ID Diagram







Example 1

Describe the following controlled process in words:


Answer: Reactants enter a jacketed CSTR where a reaction takes place and the products exit. The reactor is cooled via a coolant water stream. The temperature inside the reactor vessel is monitored with a temperature controller (also contained in the controller is a sensor, indicator, and transmitter), which electrically controls a valve. The valve can alter the flowrate of the coolant water stream, thereby controlling the temperature inside the reactor. A pressure controller is also present which feeds back to an inlet valve. Therefore, we can deduce that this reaction is most likely gas phase and if the CSTR becomes too full (high pressure) the inlet valve will close.

Example 2

Draw a proper P&ID diagram of the following process:

A storage tank is filled with condensed products formed via the CSTR in Example 1. The tank contains a level controller at a set point on the top of the tank. If this tank were to fill, materials would get clogged up in the reactor. Therefore, if the tank reaches 90% of its total capacity, the level controller will send an electric signal, which opens an emergency drainage line located at the bottom of the tank. The level controller will also activate an alarm alerting plant engineers that there is a problem with the storage tank. Finally, the level controller will also close the inlet valve to the storage tank.


Example 3

Below is a P&ID diagram of the transesterification process to produce biodiesel. Soybean oil, methanol, and the sodium methoxide catalyst are pumped in to the reactor. The temperature of the reactor is regulated by the circulation water. The resulting biodiesel is then pumped out of the reactor and goes on to other processes so that it can be sold. Below is a P&ID of the process that is missing the valves, pumps, and sensors. Add the pumps, sensors, and valves that are needed to successfully control the process.
Wiki sol.jpg

Example 4

Below is a example problem of a typical P&ID problem. A is a liquid at Tamp but boils at Trx. B and P are high boiling point liquids and C is a solid. The reaction for the process is 2A+B+C-->P at Trx. Ais fed in excess.

Below is the solution to the problem above.

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